The inscriptions from whence many of the Depositio Martyrum entries came survived long enough to be found primarily because they were 'underground' and hidden from those destroying everything related to Christianity that could be found 'above ground' during the FINAL Great Persecution of 303 ~ 313 AD.

The Depositio Martyrum and many other administrative references may have been created 'on the fly' by the administrator in charge of the cemeteries in the middle of the 4th century - the person who later served as Pope from 366 through 383.  The same person who created and placed epigraphs to the most significant martyrs found in the underground cemeteries.  The one who should probably be referred to as the FIRST SERIOUS SCHOLAR of the catacombs of Rome - Pope-Saint Damasus.  (The proof of Damasus' promotional efforts regarding the catacombs may be reflected by the Cult of the Saints - a phenomenon begun around the end of the 4th century, or so, and repeated one or more times several hundred years apart.  The Cyriacus Chapel built around 780/781 in Magdeburg appears to be the earliest recorded evidence of one of those episodes of the phenomenon in Germany.)

Although many of the other martyr's inscriptions have been identified and located, that of this Cyriacks at the Baths seems not to be among them.  His epitaph may have been lost, relocated or destroyed - but maybe not before someone else copied it.

    John Capgrave may have translated it (or some form of it) almost verbatim from a plaque at the then still extant St. Cyriacus Chapel across from the ruins of the Baths of Diocletian when he visited Rome in the middle of the 15th century.  [ Ben Ciriacks thinks that the succinctness and exactness of the ?latin? wording from whence his olde english translation came (see it at legends on this page and a separate page here) hints at an inscribed in stone, bronze or other weather and time resistant source.  See the Voragine translation at the same place on this page for a more verbose (and ?dubious?) alternative. ]
It may be from whence the legends regarding he and the others came.  If so, it can be given more credence thereby.  The dedications by Damasus didn't generally go into much detail about the martyrdoms, indicating both his unwillingness to 'fabricate' legends and the enhanced credibility of those details which were provided.  In other words, Damasus may have assigned degrees of validity to the 1st, 2nd or 3rd hand testimony gathered regarding the martyrdoms and was unwilling to pass along those he considered too tenuous.

St. Basil the Great's 271st Letter (this one directed to a long deceased Eusebius), probably regards this Cyriacus at the Baths.  If so, it is the oldest and first written (as opposed to inscribed in stone) reference to him that we've found, so far.  See the applicable portion of Basil's letter CCLXXI toward the end of the Kayseri-Caesarea-Cesarea entry at our Christian locales page.


Patron Saint called upon "to gain control over the ego", protector against demonic possession and eye disease, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers revered in Germany and surrounding areas, he's possibly one of the earliest if not the first exorcist of the Rome based Church.  According to The Catholic Encyclopedia for School and Home, not much is known about this early Roman martyr.  Even the exact date that he, Largus and Smaragdus, also early Saints, were put to death is unknown.

That's an understatement!  He should be the patron saint of altruists, the homeless, travellers and the dispossessed.  Here's what's been pieced together from various, oftentimes contradictory references to Cyriacus, Largus and Smaragdus:

   [ September 15th, 2012:  We now have a separate page that shows what an olde englishe version of the writing on the ?lost? plaque from whence Friar Capgrave translated his version of the legend might have looked - latin was probably the language used on the plaque he saw. ]

  8/8/09:  A 'commemoration date' Cyriacus of Rome BlogSpot entry from Deacon and author Ormonde Plater of New Orleans, Louisiana provides a comprehensive narrative that also includes the beheading of Sisinius before the others:

8 August

Cyriacus, deacon and martyr, with companions, beheaded at Rome in 303.

Born of a noble family, Cyriacus became a Christian and gave his wealth to the poor.  He was ordained a deacon at Rome by bishop Marcellinus.  Diocletian was emperor, assisted by Maximian, his favorite.  Maximian decided to build a beautiful palace for the emperor, with magnificent baths, and to make the Christians work at the construction.  Among the new slaves were old men and presbyters.  The labor was hard and the food scanty.  A Roman nobleman desired to relieve the sufferings of these laborers and sent four Christians with alms and encouragements, Cyriacus, Sisinius, Largus, and Smaragdus.  They pursued their charities at the risk of their lives, and they worked vigorously alongside those who were growing very weak.

When Maximian heard of it, he ordered the beheading of Sisinius and an old man he had helped.  Cyriacus was well known to Diocletian, who was fond of him.  Suddenly Diocletian's daughter became possessed by a demon, and she announced that only Cyriacus could deliver her.  Diocletian sent for him, and he cured her.  She became a Christian like her mother, Serena.  A short time later the daughter of the king of Persia also became possessed, and cried out like Diocletian's daughter that she could be delivered only by Cyriacus, who was in Rome.  A message was sent to Diocletian, who asked his wife to persuade the deacon to go to Persia.  He went with his two remaining Christian companions, and again he cast out the demon, thus bringing about the conversion of the king, his family, and four hundred persons, whom he baptized.

The three confessors returned to Rome, having refused all compensation for their services, saying that they had received the gifts of God freely and wished to share them freely.  Maximian, hearing of their return in 303, had them seized, imprisoned, tortured, and finally beheaded with twenty other Christians.  Their bodies were buried near the place of their execution on the Salarian Way but later were removed to the city.  An abbey in France, at Altorf in Alsace, possesses relics of Cyriacus and bears his name.
 


Another site with a slightly differing narrative gives sources for this narrative as Les Petits Bollandistes: Vies des Saints, by Msgr. Paul Guérin (Bloud et Barral: Paris, 1882), Vol. 9; Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints, a compilation based on Butler's Lives of the Saints and other sources by John Gilmary Shea (Benziger Brothers: New York, 1894).

Yet another site has the Cyriaque spelling for this renowned saint and their church dedicated to him.


  They and several thousand other Christian slaves were helping build the new great Baths of Diocletian.  The baths were located inside the recently built Aurelian Wall closest to the Porta Pia and Porta Salaria from whence the Via Nomentana and Via Salaria begin, respectively.
    They were slaves because that was the way the Empire dealt with Christians when they didn't want to just kill them off - a convenient way to get cheap, relatively cooperative labor.  The usual method was to enforce the loyalty oath to the Empire and its pagan gods -- knowing that the Christians would refuse to make it.  And, given that Christians, using Jesus Christ as their role model, did not themselves resort to violence, they became very docile workers.
Cyriacus was said to be both deacon and confessor, while Largus and Smaragdus were just confessors.  (At that time in Church history, deacons were a rung below bishops but apparently weren't required to be priests/presbyters before that!)

The administrative portion of the FINAL Great Persecution began in Nicomedia on February 23rd, 303.  Its first step was the destruction of churches and Church records.  In addition, the often used pro-pagan loyalty test was reintroduced, forcing more Christians into slave labor until the next, killing phase was begun the next year.  (It undoubtedly made the killing phase easier when pre-identified Christians were already grouped together.) In any event, when the baths were finished, the Christian slaves on hand were all killed in one fell swoop - Cyriacus, Largus and Smaragdus, et al, among them - both in legend and ?apparently? in fact.


[ That this FINAL Great Persecution was pre-planned is hinted at by various sources indicating that the purge of the military was begun two decades earlier when Diocletian assumed power in 284.  He had to make sure his orders to kill all the Christians, when that time came, weren't undermined by Christian soldiers or soldiers with Christian sympathies.  It's likely that the Christians soldiers in Rome were the last to be purged. ]

The Martyrology of the Sacred Order of Friars Preachers site (found on March 20th, 2000) in a discussion of March 16th has:

    "At Rome, the suffering of St. Cyriacus, deacon.  After wasting away for a long time in prison, melted pitch was poured over him.  He was stretched out on a platform, bound with leather thongs, and beaten with clubs.  Finally, at the command of Maximian, he was beheaded in company with Largus, Smaragdus, and twenty others.  Their feast is observed on August 8 because that was the day on which the bodies of these twenty-three martyrs were exhumed by Pope St. Marcellus and given honorable burial."

The August 8th discussion has:
    "... martyrs Cyriacus, deacon, Largus, and Smaragdus, with twenty others, who suffered on March 16.  Their bodies were buried on the Via Salaria by a priest named John, and on this day Pope St. Marcellus removed them to the garden of Lucina, on the Via Ostiensis.  Afterward, they were brought into the city, and buried in the deaconry of St. Mary's in Via Latina.  ..."
S. Ciriacus performing exorcism of Artemia by Matthias Grünewald The Catholic Encyclopedia for School and Home, McGraw-Hill, 1965, has:
"All that is known for certain about St. Cyriacus is that he was an early Roman martyr.  Other details of this life are probably fictitious.  Not even the date of this death is known." (It and the following sites provide the details for most of the rest of the legend.)

Some German sites (one two three) expand upon the Cyriacus legend:
 
      Under the direction of Pope Marcellinus (296 ~ 304), Cyriacus was a deacon and confessor to the enslaved Christians building the splendid baths of the Emperor Diocletian (284-305).  Assisting him were Largus and Smaragdus.
      Cyriacus (et al) were arrested for these activities, but when Cyriacus exorcised the the demons from the Emperor's daughter, Artemia, he rewarded him with a house - a house which became a church or meeting place for Christians when Christianity was still illegal in Rome.


Matthias Grünewald Saint Cyriakus_ Heller_ Grunewald_ Epilepsy Museum Kork is the name of a file (click it to go there) with a picture of a statue and the following text:

Saint Cyriakus heals the Caesar Diocletian's daughter of epilepsy. Matthias Grünewald (1460-1528)

Wing of the so-called Heller Altar, Frankfurt (Historisches Museum Frankfurt)

8/5/10:  St. Cyriakus, Zimmerbach (Die Sankt Cyriakus Kirche) has an image of the Grünewald Heller-Altar painting of Der Heilige Cyriakus (with Princess Artemia kneeling at his right) along with much of his legend and 'known' history.



      In fulfillment of a prophecy springing forth from the devil driven out of Artemia, Cyriacus went to Persia (referred to as Babylon in the legend) to exorcise the Persian king's daughter.  Cyriacus is said to have converted many of the Persians to Christianity.  [ It should be remember that before the Romans and before the Greeks, it was the Persians who had conquered the 'world' - or at least the world around the Mediterranean that they all knew.  Cyriacus was a Greek and a Roman Citizen who may have had familial ties to even more ancient Persia. ]
      Meanwhile back in Rome, the times were changing.  The FINAL Great Persecution had already begun.  Upon return to Rome, the Emperor's colleague Maximian had Cyriacus , Largus and Smaragdus put to death outside the city.
Another part of the legend indicates that Maximian seized Cyriacus for torture, including pouring hot pitch over his body before finally beheading him.  Another official then confiscated Cyriacus' house, bathed in its' sacred baptistry and held a banquet for himself and 19 friends - all of whom suddenly died together as a consequence of this sacrilege.  [ 10/12/09: This may be why the 'titulus' associated with this site has been wandering around ever since and lends credence to this part of the story. ]
      Cyriacus is said to have been buried at the via Ostiensis with his relics eventually dispersing to Ancona, Neuhausen at Worms, Bamberg and old village in the Elsass.
          St. Cyriacus' feast is celebrated on August 8.

During the process when the Church was being officially recognized and organized in the first half of the 4th century, it was caught between a rock and a hard place.  While the Empire wanted it to designate those areas to which it laid claim - mostly where Christians had been meeting or had established church edifices by 303 - the individuals who were aware of those locations were killed off as part of the FINAL Great Persecution of 303 ~ 313.  In addition, the churches were destroyed and the catacombs were blocked or hidden.
 
It's self-evident that any Church leadership extant in the decades immediately after the end of the FINAL Great Persecution, merely by being alive to assume a leadership role, evidenced less than total commitment to the Christian faith.  In other words, the only valid usage of the otherwise odious phrase, "the only good Christian, is a dead Christian", may have actually been applicable in the aftermath of the FINAL Great Persecution begun in 303.  Those having gone into hiding to save their souls obviously didn't fully believe in the immediate ascension into heavan involved with glorious martyrdom for their faith.
 
It probably took until the middle of the 4th century for the Church to reform and reorganize itself among those left who were unborn or too young to suffer death for their faith.  These were the leaders who evidently began the process of recreating the records destroyed in Rome at that time.
 
Their problem, obviously, was that first hand witnesses couldn't be trusted unless they were Christian and they couldn't have survived unless they denied their faith - thereby making themselves untrustworthy.  It's understandable that records about Rome extant in other bishoprics were not shared because of the generic distrust toward the Roman Church leadership evidenced until mid-4th century by some and continuing even today by others.
 
Well, by the time the records were re-created, the only accounts that could have been pieced together were from non-Christians, pseudo-Christians or even pagans who were old enough at the beginning of the century to understand what they had witnessed or 'overheard'.  In fact, there were most likely NO WITNESSES still alive 75 years later in 350 who had first hand knowledge even of the penultimate persecution of Aurelian, who reigned from 270 to 275.  The knowledge we have about those events seems to be as inadequate as those of the 1st and 2nd centuries.  The knowledge we have before 260 seems to come from copies of letters, mostly by Bishop-Saint-Martyr Cyprian and others, that were not destroyed because they were not in Rome.  There seems to be almost nothing, if anything extant regarding the Church in Rome between 260 and 308.
 
So, testimony was taken, cemeteries, catacombs and ruins were located and names were matched as well as could be done.  The ruins were probably presumed to have been former churches, or at minimum houses of wealthy Christians where meetings took place but which had not yet become formal churches.  (There is mention in the various writings regarding plaques affixed to houses which contained the names of the owners thereof - something extant in many parts of Europe to this day.  Given the thorough destruction involved, it's doubtful that many, if any of these tangible 'titles' survived to provide evidence after 313.  It's more likely that witnesses described seeing them on the houses before they became ruins.)
 
Needless to say, it was in the self-interest of the Church to designate as many sites as possible, since the Empire apparently was quite willing to give them complete control over each site.  On the other hand, it also makes sense that the Empire wasn't dumb enough to accept more sites than were warranted by legitmate evidence.  One such site involved Cyriacus, Largus, Smaragdus, et al[ Remember, they were supposed to have been killed at the site of the largest, then extant public works project in the Roman Empire - the Baths of Diocletian.  It's unlikely the empire was willing to go so far as to let the church have that site or that the new leaders rebuilding the church had the audacity to lay claim to it!  It's noteworthy that the Depositio Martyrum doesn't show the consuls at the time of their martyrdom - as it does for a few others - even though theirs contains the greatest number of martyrs listed together, six in all.  Listing the consuls indicates that the martyrdom was known to have occurred at a specific time.  When absent, it seems to imply that although the martyrdom was known to have occurred, the exact circumstances, especially including the date and most likely the locale, were unknown around 354 A.D., when the priceless Depositio Martyrum seems to have been prepared. ]  

St. Cyriakus Kopfreliquiar in Braunschweig's Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum The best evidence discovered, so far, that the bodies of Cyriacus, et al, were ever found is the head relic located in the Duke Anton Ulrich Museum in Braunschweig.  My wild guess says that it contains relics from the head of Cyriacus - if not the entire head, itself.  The other references to the citing of his relics, head or body are summarized below.
  • 304 A.D.  Via Salaria/Alta Semita  ?Site of beheading and martyrdom?  The Baths of Diocletian are adjacent to the Alta Semita which continued on to become the Via Nomentana at the Aurelian Wall surrounding Rome.  The Via Salaria also begins at the same wall as the continuation of an avenue that ran parallel to and just north of the Alta Semita.  In other words, an ancient reference to the Via Salaria, especially coming from 2nd or 3rd hand informants, may just as well have been to what was called the Alta Semita - or the site of the NEWLY CONSTRUCTED great Baths of Diocletian.  The church of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Our Lady of the Angels) was built among the ruins of the baths from 1563 to 1566 according to the Chandlery book and the web site discussing the church.  Another web site also stated that:  [ "The Chapel of Relics ... was built in 1742 to hold relics of martyrs connected to the building of the Baths of Diocletian.  ... Among the martyrs some names have been preserved, such as Sts Cyriacus, Largus, Smaragdus and Maximus the Centurion.  ..." ]

  • 366~383 Via Ostiense  A site in need of a martyr because it ?was already Church connected? and had no martyr already associated with it.  Because the site of their martyrdom was probably at the newly constructed, gigantic Baths of Diocletian, it would have been impolitic to claim it as a site (Titulus), so another at the 7 mile marker along the Ostian Way may have been selected.
        Or, this could have been the site where another Bishop Cyriacus had held sway.  We know next to nothing about this individual (all the records of the time being destroyed) but he could have been martyred around 234 ~ 259 and may have been one of the more prominent members of the Rome centered Cyriac Family.  An indication of this prominence comes from , which has:

    "Not counting St. Cyriacus, martyr, and Maximus the bishop who, according to the Acts of St. Laurence, consecrated in 269, the first Bishop of Ostia was Maximus, A. D. 313.  We know from St. Augustine that the Bishop of Ostia sometimes consecrated the pope.  ...

        [ 1/6/03 update:  Note that the year should be 259 - not 269.  Pope Dionysius was the eighth pope installed in the three decades since the especially cruel persecutions began around 235.  In fact, his installation came after several months when there was no Bishop of Rome.  It was preceded by the execution of Pope Sixtus and, a few days later, the HouseOfCyriac connected martyrdom of St. Lawrence.  This may indicate that the Bishop of Ostia was too important administratively to the Church to be in line to become the next pope but, instead, led the way in helping to choose just who was to assume that position - and possible quick martyrdom. ]

        Or, this may indeed have been the primary site from which Cyriacus, et al, first met and became acquainted with the Christian slaves being marched from Ostia to their work site at the baths.  It could even have been an old bath house given to Cyriacus by Diocletian.  After all, having a bath house for visitors coming to Rome at a spot where they could clean-up BEFORE making their entrance to the city makes as much sense then as it does now.  A spot 7 miles outside the city seems as good as any.  And, once the Ostian Way became a route for marching slaves instead of more esteemed citizens, there would have no longer been a need for the bathhouse as such.  (The Via Portuense on the other side of the river Tiber may have been the preferred route for non-slave visitors at that time.)

    The Bishop of Ostia page

  • 972  Via Lata  Bill Thayer's Churches of Rome site discusses the location of the Monastery of S. Cyriaci de Camiliano in the area where the present S. Maria in Via Lata is located from as early as 972 to 1882.  Station St Cyriacus at S Maria in Via Lata

  • ...  Alta Semita  The next stop (former convent of St. Stephen) has a footnote indicating that the "ancient church of St. Cyriacus stood on the Alta Semita.  The site is covered by the modern Ministero delle Finanze." (1903 reference.) The footnote on the next page also states that "During the building of the new Ministero delle Finanze, some remains of this martyr's ancient church were found." The Van der Meer Atlas (1958) indicates a "Parish church, founded 4th-6th century" between the Alta Semita, the inside-the-wall portion of the Via Nomentana, and the baths of Diocletian.  Some maps show Via XX (or Venti) Settembre, instead of Alta Semita and as a continuation of Via del Quirinale beginning at the Piazza Quirinale.

    Another site discusses: 

      "... the near by nunnery of St. Cyriacus, where Cyriacus's head is kept, that head has been said, since the time of Gregory IX (1241), to have become red with blood on the anniversary of the martyr's death, and the reliquary to have become moist ..."  (This apparently is another convent.)

  • 1450 Via Lata  Santa Maria in Via Lata obtains the "revenues, relics and all" that's left from the desolate ruins of the buildings on the Corso which had become a large convent of Benedictine nuns.  Pope Nicholas V (1447-55) is responsible.  (The head of Cyriacus was still there in 1903.)  Station St Cyriacus at S Maria in Via Lata

  • 1561 Alta Semita/Via Salaria  The Basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri alle Terme di Diocleziano di Roma (Basilica of Saint Mary of the Angels and the Martyrs at the Baths of Diocletian in Rome) has some very interesting information, some of which is quoted below:
    • Pius IV, Giovanni Angelo de Medici consecrated the Church of S. Maria degli Angeli on 5 August 1561.  He transferred the title of Saint Ciriaco to the Baths and enabled the Carthusian monks to worship here officially.  They had occupied a place in the Church since 1091.  ...
    • The marriage of the Prince of Naples (future king of Italy, Vittorio Emanuelle III) and princess Elena of Montenegro was celebrated in the basilica on 24 October 1896.  From this point onwards Santa Maria degli Angeli became the official Church of the Italian State.

      In other words, the "official Church of the Italian State" is the one which also holds the "title of Saint Ciriaco to the Baths" which, of course, the the primary saint to whom 400 churches in Germany and who knows how many others throughout the rest of the world are dedicated.

    • On 20 July 1920 Benedetto XV Giacomo della Chiesa (1914-1922) elevated the Church to status of a minor basilica with his apostolic letter, “Ad perpetuam rei memoriam.  Titulum Sancti Ciriaci in Thermis...” The ancient church of S Ciriaco was demolished to make way for the imposing building of the Finance Ministery in Via XX Settembre." (See above re Settembre.)  [ The ancient church had been demolished long before 1920 - it was the ruins of the ancient church that were discovered during the construction of the new Ministry of Finance building in 1874. ]

      The ancient church of S Ciriaco referenced in the previous paragraph, above, is mentioned as the Ciriaco house located north-west of the Baths of Diocletian that was used by Christian faithful before the Final Great Persecution of Diocletian at the same St. Mary of the Angels (et al) web site.

  • 1662 Via Lata  Around 1662, Pope Alexander VII (1655-67) has the "Lenton Station of S. Cyriacus in Thermis" transferred to Santa Maria in Via Lata.  The church also possesses the bodies of SS. Largus, Smaragdus and companions, martyrs, and may other precious relics.  (The "S. CIRIACO IN THERMIS" title is in the index of the Corpus basilicarum book, but is still a mystery here in Milwaukee because those pages have yet to be seen in another, good copy of that architectural reference put out by the Vatican.)  Santa Maria, itself, is built upon the ruins of Septa Julia, the "covered porticoes for the use of the Roman people, begun by Julius Caesar, and finished by Agrippa in the year 27 B.C." This supposedly was the traditional site of St. Paul's home-prison in the middle of the 1st century.
    Station St Cyriacus at S Maria in Via Lata - note the Roman numerals MDCLXII (1662) at mid-right - meaning, maybe, that this structure was completed and dedicated that year.

  • 1715 Via Ostiense  St. Cyriacus catacomb entered by Boldetti and relics, if any, therein moved.  Records are either lost, never recorded or too controversial for dissemination.  This is probably the place where Pope Marcellus (308~309) moved the relics just before his own death.  The validity of the references to the Alta Semita church site need to be compared to those of the Via Ostia church site to determine which is to be believed as having more validity regarding the August 8th, 304 martyrdom.  [ Or, whether these are two distinct individuals.  One being at the Baths and the other being the Bishop of Ostia of the same name having been martyed a half-century earlier. ]

  • PRESENT DAY  Roman sites - Mosaic - Rome: ..., S. Costanza, ...  "We have also preserved in the Chigi Library some mosaic from the catacomb of Cyriacus." (The Chigi Library in Rome undoubtedly has many ancient artifacts which could aide our research efforts.)
    Abingdon, Berkshire: RELICS . . . Parts of these Martyred Saints: ..., Valerian, ..., Cyriacus, Sixtus, Bishop & Martyr, Christopher, Boniface, ...

The statues of Cyriakus shown above are located in churches throughout Germany and elsewhere.  (The Salzbergen/Emsland picture comes to us via the pastor of another church in Gernrode, built in 961 and still there - the latter church being the oldest extant ediface dedicated to St. Cyriacus of which we are aware.)  [ The Cyriakus spelling with the 'kus' instead of 'cus' ending seems to be associated mostly with Roman Catholic churches in Germany.  There are reportedly more than 400 Catholic or other churches in Germany dedicated to St. Cyriakus/cus. ]

[ February 28th, 2007 update:  Most of the links found a decade ago are no longer active and have been removed - some significant text remains -- use that text within Google or other search engines to see if they're still on the internet somewhere else. ]


  • 8/16/12:  Scripta manent blog has an image from a 12th century English manuscript (of ancient latin martyrologies) that shows Ciriaci in red.  This is the oldest written (versus inscribed in stone) form of our family name found, so far.
  • 8/7/12:  Vultus.StBlogs.org (A Benedictine interpretation should be more reliable than many others for their extensive and ancient resources.)
  • 3/3/11:  An illuminating and sophisticated site was discovered here - couldn't find details of a couple of the items that were not already at this web site.  It's and interesting way to tour what's known about a subject but the pop-up text gets in the way of doing so quickly.
  • 11/15/10:  The english translation of the italian review of the 'San Ciriaco Diacono e Martire ... culto santuariale a Torre Le Nocelle' book indicates that our Cyriacus at the Baths was born into a nobel family with origins in Turkey.
  • 11/1/10:  The CIERGES spelling is indicated for Switzerland at this TerritorioScuola.com web site - 2,135th alternative spelling found to date.
  • 9/8/10:  [ This site was originally discovered on 5/10/10 and referenced in the Voragine translation regarding Carpasius and the public toilet but not here until 'time was found' to do so now. ]
      On 07/28/2003, Antonio Borrelli submitted a well researched posting to www.santibeati.it/dettaglio/ entitled, San Ciriaco di Roma.  In it is the following information to our family history project (the translation from the original italian to english was via Google):

    1. "... created some confusion ..."[ That whole paragraph confirms what anyone researching this or the other saints in Rome or elsewhere discovers. ]

    2. "... donated the house to establish a baptismal font and when Pope Marcello baptize their converts ..." [ The batismal activity (and thereby the house and probable old bath house across the street from the new baths construction site that was donated to Ciriaco where the baptisms occurred) had to have taken place before the FINAL Great Persecution (online) 'formally ' began in February 303.  The Pope, therefore, had to be Marcellinus and not Marcellus. ]

    3. "... of the Via Ostiense.  Their house assigned initially Carpasio the prefect, is transformed into a public toilet and later closed and abandoned.  ..."[ public toilet is new ]

    4. "The dates do not coincide, but this is the result of what was said.  In the 'Liber Pontificalis' is reported that Pope Honorius (625-638) did produce a church in honor of the only s. Ciriaco and likewise in the biographies of Pope Benedict III Pope Leo III and is remembered this church, the ruins of this ancient basilica were rediscovered in 1915 on the Via Ostiense.  ..."[ This places bits and pieces of 'some' information discovered elsewhere all in one place and provides new names (Popes Honorius, Benedict III and Leo III) on which to search for more about this church on the Via Ostiense. ]

    5. "The cult of St. Ciriaco in Rome during the Middle Ages, there was significant diffusion, as shown by the various churches erected in his honor almost all have disappeared in 817 by Pope Paschal I the saint's relics were transferred from the church on the Via Ostiense in Santa Praxedes and later in S. Ciriaco Neuhausen at Worms, and in this part of Saxony the saint had a great worship and a whole iconographic tradition.   [ This confirms the movement of the relics and introduces new information about previously unknown churches in Rome. ]
     

  • 8/10/10:  1266 Battle of Sulzfeld ... takes place on August 8th and is therefore named after our Cyriacus at the Baths (of Diocletian).
  • 6/21/10:  14 Holy Helpers School, Gardenville, New York [Webmaster note:  309 is the year Pope Marcellus translated his remains, along with those of others, from their martyrdom site nearer to the Baths of Diocletian - the death probably took place in 304 or 5 years earlier. ]  
  • 4/27/10: 
  • 4/27/10:  The Der Gnadenaltar page of the "Basilika Bierzehnheiligen" german web site has a picture of St. Cyriakus/Kyriakos/Dominicus holding the devil (dragon) on a chain - representing his power over the demon through exorcism rites.  [ Noteworthy is the youthful versus elderly figure of the saint.  We need to get permission to display this picture here, along with the short prayer associated with him. ]
  • Laurentius, Stadtpatron von Duderstadt © Klaus Graf 1997 - This site, found on July 11th, 1998, is an apparent discussion of Saints Laurence and Cyriacus.  A very rough translation seems to indicate that Laurence replaced Cyriacus as the primary patron saint of Duderstadt.  Both are said to have been Deacons of the ancient Church.  The proximity of their August 8th and August 10th dates of veneration are noted.  Mention is made of statues and ?paintings? or wall hangings that were said to have existed in some of the medievel buildings dedicated to them.

  • A listing for November 24th has St. Crescentian of Rome (deadlink www.erols.com site) dying in 309 "in the company of Saints Cyriacus, Largus, Smaragdus".

  • Cyriacus at the Baths is a title given to honored others per the Vox in Excelso - 22 March 1312.  It's included as part of the Council of Vienne 1311-1312 A.D., a portion of which is quoted here:
    "...  We empowered and commanded our beloved sons Berengar, cardinal, then with the title of Nereus and Achilleus, now bishop of Frascati, and Stephen, cardinal priest with the title of Saint Cyriacus at the Baths, and Landulf, cardinal deacon with the title of saint Angelo, in whose prudence, experience and loyalty we have the fullest confidence, to make a careful investigation with the grand master,
    ...
    ... Given at Vienne on 22 March in the seventh year of our pontificate."

  • Bruyn Diokletian und Cyriacus 1532 hist. is a reference contained at Antikenrezeption in den Gemälden der Alten und der Neuen Pinakothek.

  • An impressive list of martyrs from the 3rd century included Cyriacus:
        Martyres (74v)  | Martyred (Cyriax web site notes):
          Stephanus     |         ?Pope (254~257) or Deacon of 8/6/258?
            Linus       |         ?Pope (67~76)   or Pope Marcellinus 8/304?
            Cletus      |         ?Pope (76~88)   MISSING POPES:
            Clemens     |         ?Pope (88~97)     Fabian    (236~250)
            Sixtus      |  8/6/258 Pope (257~258)   Lucius I  (253-254)
          Cornelius     |      253 Pope (251~253) MISSING DEACONS:
          Cyprianus     | 9/14/258 Bishop (248~258) Gennarius      w/Sixtus
         Cholomannus    | ?8/6/258   Magnus?        Agapitus       w/Laurence
           Georgius     |                           Felicissimus   w/Laurence
          Laurentius    | 8/10/258                  Stephen(above) w/Sixtus
          Hyppolitus    |
          Vincentius    |  8/6/258
          Lambertus     |           That Smaragdus and Largus aren't on this
          Emmeramus     |           list with Cyriacus hints that it only
          Ianuarius     |  ?/?/304  includes bishops and deacons - not
           Kilianus     |           confessors and priests.  It also implies
          Mauritius     |           a reference to Cyriacus' deaconhood
          Cyriacus      |  ?/?/304  extant somewhere as yet unfound.

  • Deacon saints (dead link), in August, had:
    8   Cyriacus, with companions, martyred at Rome, 304 ...
    23 Archelaus, with bishop Quiriacus of Ostia and others, martyr, c 234 (or 250/259?) ...
    (98n03: This is the first appearance of a reference to a Bishop of Ostia and lends credence to my suspicion that there was another Cyriacus martyred in the middle of the 3rd century about whom we know next to nothing.)

  • 14 HOLY HELPERS: S Barbara, S Agnes, S Agatha, S Katharine of Alexandria, S Cyriacus and others; Cyriaca, Cyriacus, Cyricus, Judas Quiriacus et al & Cyriacus (gegen b&oumlse M&aumlchte) Unser Bote: Wallfahrtn & ... Karl A. Neuhausen, "Cyriacus und die Nereiden: Ein Auftritt des Chors der antiken Meerenymphen in der Renaissance," RhM 127 (1984) 174-92 (inactive link)

  • »Es ist kein Teufel in der Höll, der also heißt«; und weil ich ihn hierauf geschwind fragte, ob denn einer in der Höll wäre, der Cyriacus hieße? er aber nichts zu antworten wußte, ob er sich schon klug zu sein dünkte, gefiel solches meinem Hauptmann so wohl, daß er gleich im Anfang viel von mir hielt. (inactive link)

  • Papst Cyriacus & S. Quiriacus & Susanna 8. VIII. (mit Cyriacus), 11. VIII. (mit Tiburtius) (inactive link)

  • ... they were dragged behind a wild bull, torn with hooks, and strangled.
  •  

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